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Borobudur temple history

Posted by Muhammad Jibril on Selasa, 01 Mei 2012


In Indonesia there is a giant building that is still many mysteries unsolved. That is the Borobudur Temple. According to the history of Borobudur Temple was built by King Smaratungga one of the king of the ancient kingdom of Mataram dynasty dynasty in the 8th century. According to the legend of the Borobudur Temple was built by an architect named seo ... now Gunadharma, but the truth of the news in hirtoris not clearly known.


If we look from a distance, Borobudur will look like a staircase or a similar arrangement of building the pyramids and a stupa. Unlike the giant pyramid in Egypt and the Pyramids of Teotihuacan in Mexico Borobudur is another version of pyramid building. Borobudur pyramid form kepunden staircase will not be found in the region and any country.


Meanwhile, when viewed from the air, the Borobudur Temple is similar to the shape of lotus. Lotus is one of the symbols used in homage (worship) religion of Buddha, symbolizing purity, remind Buddhists to always keep the mind and heart remain clean despite being in an environment that is not clean.

1930s W.O.J. Nieuwenkamp never give scientific fantasy of the Borobudur Temple. Supported research on geology, Nieuwenkamp said that Borobudur stupa instead referred to as a building but as a lotus flower floating on the lake. The lake is now dry at all, used to cover a portion of Kedu lying areas that lie around the hill of Borobudur. Aerial photo Kedu area does give the impression of a vast lake around the Borobudur Temple.

According to ancient scriptures, a temple founded in the vicinity bercengkeramanya the gods. The peak and slope of the hill, an area of ​​volcanic activity, plateaus, banks of rivers and lakes, and the confluence of two rivers is considered to be a good location for the establishment of a temple.
What's interesting is the name Borobudur temple architect, who named Gunadharma. But who Gunadharma? There are no historical records about a character named Gunadharma this. It is estimated Gunadharma is a symbol of the name of someone who has exceptional intellectual. There is an assumption that the Borobudur Temple was built with the help of 'other beings'.

Basic materials making up the Borobudur Temple is a rock that reaches thousands of cubic meters of them. A stone weighing hundreds of kilograms. Remarkably, to glue the stones do not use cement. Antarbatu only linked to each other, the stone top-down, left and right, and rear-front. When viewed from the air, then the form of Borobudur Temple and statue-statue relatively symmetrical. The greatness of another, nearby Borobudur temple and there are Mendut Pawon. Apparently Borobudur, Mendut, and if drawn the line Pawon Khayat, are in a straight line.

Borobudur is a Buddhist temple, situated in the village of Borobudur Magelang regency, Central Java, was built by King Samaratungga, one of the kings of Old Mataram Kingdom, Dynasty descendant dynasty. The name Borobudur is a combination of words and Budur Bara. Bara from Sanskrit means ... temple or monastery complex. While Budur derived from the word meaning beduhur above, thereby Borobudur means monastery on the hill. Meanwhile, according to other sources means a gunungyang terraces (budhara), while other sources say that Borobudur means monastery on the high ground. Borobudur-shaped building with staircase punden consists of 10 levels, measuring 123 x 123 meters. Height 42 meters before it was renovated and 34.5 meters after the renovation because the lowest level is used as a drag. This Buddhist temple has 1460 relief panels and 504 Buddha effigies in the complex. Six lowest level of a square and three levels on top of a circle and one of the highest levels of Buddhist stupa facing to the west.


Each level represents the stages of human life. In accordance madhhabs Mahayana Buddhism, every person who wants to reach the level as the Buddha had to through every level of life is.

* Kamadhatu, the base of Borobudur, symbolizing human beings that are still bound by lust.
* Rupadhatu, four levels above it, symbolizing human beings that have been able to break free from lust but still bound manner and form. On this terrace, Buddha effigies are placed in open space. 
* Arupadhatu, three levels above where the Buddhist stupa placed in the holes. It symbolizes man who has been free from lust, appearance, and shape. 
* Arupa, the top that symbolizes nirvana, where Buddha is residing.

Each level has reliefs that will be read coherently run clockwise (towards the left of the entrance of the temple). The relief panels tell the legendary story, a variety of story content, among others, there are reliefs of the Hindu epic Ramayana, there are reliefs Jataka stories. In addition, there are relief panels describing the condition of society at that time. For example, relief of farmers' activity reflecting the advance of agriculture system and relief of sailing boat representing the advance of the voyage who was based in Bergotta (Semarang).

All relief panels in Borobudur temple reflect the Buddha's teachings. A Buddhist from India named Atisha, the 10th century, had visited the temple that was built 3 centuries before Angkor Wat in Cambodia and 4 centuries before the Grand Cathedrals in Europe. Thanks to visiting Borobudur and armed with a script from Serlingpa Buddhism (one of the king of the Kingdom of Sriwijaya), Atisha was able to develop Buddhism. He became head Vikramasila monastery and taught Tibetans of practicing Dharma. Six manuscripts of Serlingpa was condensed into a core course called "The Lamp for the Path to Enlightenment" or better known by the name Bodhipathapradipa.

One of the questions still unanswered about Borobudur is how the condition around the temple was built and why the temple was found in the buried state. Some say Borobudur initially stood dikelilingii swamp and then buried by the eruption of Merapi. It is based on Calcutta inscription reads 'Amawa' means sea of ​​milk. The word is then interpreted as lava of Merapi, probably buried by cold lava of Merapi Borobudur. The villages around Borobudur, as there Wanurejo Karanganyar and activities of local crafts. In addition, the peak watu Kendil an ideal place for panoramic views from the top of Borobudur. Earthquake on 27 May 2006 had no impact at all on the Borobudur temple so that the building can still be visited.


The history of Borobudur Temple

About three hundred years ago, where this temple is still a jungle by a resident who called the Redi surrounding Borobudur. For the first time, the name Borobudur is known from the work of MPU Prapanca Negarakertagama manuscript in the year 1365 AD, mentioned about the monastery in Budur. Later in the text of the Babad Tanah Jawi (1709-1710) there is news about Diamond Fund, a rebel against King Pakubuwono I, who was caught in Redi Borobudur and sentenced to death.

Then in 1758, blaze news about a prince from Yogyakarta, namely Prince Monconagoro, who are interested in seeing the statue of a knight who imprisoned in sangkar.Pada 1814, Thomas Stamford Raffles got news of his subordinates on the hill covered with carved stones. Based on the news that Raffles sent Cornelius, an admirer of art and history, to clean up that hill. After cleaning for two months with the help of 200 people population, it became clear the building and restoration of the temple continued in 1825. In 1834, Resident Kedu clean the temple again, and in 1842 the temple stupa reviewed for further research.

The name Borobudur

Regarding the name Borobudur archaeological experts who interpret, among them Prof. Dr. Borobudur Poerbotjoroko explains that the word comes from two words Bhoro and Budur. Bhoro derived from Sanskrit which means bihara or dormitories, while Budur word refers to a word that comes from Bali beduhur meaning above. This opinion is corroborated by prof. Dr. WF. Stutterheim who argue that Borobudur means Bihara on top of a hill.

Prof. JG. De Casparis basing on Middle Reef Inscription mentioning in this new building, which Sangkala Year: Sagara kstidhara sense, or in Caka 746 (824 AD), or on the House of dynasty that glorifies God Indra. In the inscriptions didapatlah Bhumisambharabhudhara name which means a place of worship the ancestors for the souls of his ancestors. How it happens to be a shift in Borobudur? This happens because of the pronunciation of the local community.
Development of Borobudur Temple

Borobudur temple is made in the House of a Buddhist dynasty under the leadership of King Samarotthungga. Who created the temple architecture, based on public utterances named Gunadharma. Construction of the temple was completed in 847 AD According to the inscription K. .. ulrak (784M), making this temple was assisted by a teacher from Ghandadwipa (Bengalore) named Kumaragacya a highly respected, and a prince from Kashmir named Visvawarman as an expert adviser in the teaching of Tantric Vajrayana Buddis. Construction of this temple began during the Maha Raja Sri Sanggramadananjaya Dananjaya whose surname, followed by his son, Samarotthungga, and by a granddaughter, Dyah Ayu Pramodhawardhani.

Before the restoration, just the Borobudur Temple in ruins as well as artifacts newly discovered temple. Subsequent restoration by Cornelius at the Raffles and Resident Hatmann, after that period is then performed in 1907-1911 by Theodore van Erp who rebuilt the temple from the ruins of the order form for the time eaten up the form now.

Van Erp is actually an engineer building Genie military with the rank of lieutenant, but then attracted to research and learn the ins and outs of Borobudur temple, began to philosophy through the teachings they contain. For that he tried to do a comparative study for several years in India. He also went to Sri Lanka to see the composition of the top building Sanchi stupa in Kandy, until finally van Erp discovered form of Borobudur Temple. While the foundation of philosophy and religion was found by the Stutterheim and NJ. Chromium, which is about the teachings of the Buddha Dharma by Mahayana Buddhism, Yogacara and there is a tendency also mingled with the flow Tantrayana-Vajrayana.

Research on the composition of the temple and the philosophy that carries itself requires a substantial time, especially if linked with other temple buildings are still one family. Just as the Borobudur temple with Pawon and Mendut which are geographically located in one lane.
Material Borobudur


Borobudur is the second largest temple after Ankor Wat temple in Cambodia. Borobudur Temple building area 15,129 m2, composed of 55,000 m3 of stone, from 2 million pieces of rocks. The average stone size 25 cm X 10 cm X 15 cm. Long pieces of stone as a whole 500 km with a total weight of 1.3 million tons of stone. The walls of Borobudur Temple surrounded by pictures or reliefs which is a series of stories in 1460 terususun panel. The length of each panel 2 meters. If the series of reliefs that stretched the length of relief wholly approximately 3 km. The number of levels there are ten, 1-6 levels of a square, while the 70-10 round. Arca found throughout the temple buildings totaling 504 units. High temple of the surface soil until the end of the main stupa was once 42 meters, 34.5 meters but now lives after being struck by lightning.

According to the survey an anthropologist, ethnologist Austria, Robert von Heine Geldern, the ancestor of the Indonesian people are familiar with grammar and culture in the Neolithic period Megalithic originating from South Vietnam and Cambodia. At the Megalithic era ancestors of Indonesia make the tomb of his ancestors as well as a place of worship tiered pyramid building, getting to the top smaller. One of them found in Lebak Sibedug Leuwiliang Bogor, West Java. Similar buildings are also found in the Temple Sukuh near Solo, Borobudur Temple also.

If we look from a distance, Borobudur will look like a staircase or a similar arrangement of building the pyramids and a stupa. Unlike the giant pyramid in Egypt and the Pyramids of Teotihuacan in Mexico Borobudur is another version of pyramid building. Borobudur pyramid form kepunden staircase will not be found in the region and any country, including in India. This is one of the advantages of Borobudur temple which is a typical Buddhist architecture in Indonesia.

The mystery surrounding the Borobudur Temple

Until now there are some things that still a matter of mystery surrounding the founding of the Borobudur Temple, for example in terms of rock composition, how to transport the stone from the area of ​​origin to destination, whether the stones were already in the desired size or is still a form of native mountain stone , how long the process of cutting the stones until the desired size, how to raise the stones from the bottom of the page to the top of the temple, crane equipment is used ?.

Image of relief, whether the stones were installed after the last picture, or just plain stone carved in a state to be drawn. And starting from the part where the image was carved, from top to bottom or from bottom to top? there are many more mysteries that have not been scientifically revealed, especially about the space that is found on the main stupa of the temple and the statue of Buddha, at the center or the zenith of the temple in the largest stupa, believed there had been a statue of an imperfect depiction Adibuddha which is still a mystery.

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